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Cyber Laws in IT & ITES

With the phenomenal and enormous growth of Internet specialized branch of Law called Cyber Law.

Immigration & Emmigration

When a person enters a new country for the purpose of establishing permanent residence and ultimately gaining citizenship , it is called

Immigration.But the residence of immigrants is subject to the conditions set by the Immigration Law.


Sports Law

Though in the narrow legal sense these are private bodies, yet in reality they are performing important public functions in the field of sports where national or public interest is at stake, similar to public or governmental authorities as regulators and facilitators of the game in the field of sports. Accordingly in the said countries including India for enforcement of their public duties and obligations prerogative Constitutional Writs of High Courts lie against these private bodies like any public or Government Authority.

In the USA and UK the sports bodies have multiple obligations under the sports law. They are under the law bound not to make any gender discrimination among the players. For instance, Title IX in the USA is an important Act of 1972, which prohibits a federally funded institute to discriminate on the basis of gender.

They must also allow the players to unionize and negotiate collective bargaining agreements with the management on their terms and conditions of work including pay, hours of work etc.

In cases involving allegations of drug abuse and use of performance enhancing drugs these bodies must give the concerned player the right of being heard before taking any punitive action against him.

Since players are nowadays under public and media attention, these bodies must be careful not to cause any damage to the reputation of the players and not to exploit the celebrity status of the players without their consent. In default, these bodies become liable in damages to the aggrieved player. Spectators can also sue the sports bodies or clubs for negligence under the law of torts when they suffer unexpected injuries, given the nature of the game.

Olympic Laws

The Olympic Laws derive their sources from the Olympic Charter which is the combination of the fundamental principles and laws implemented by the International Olympic Committee (IOC).

It manages and controls the organization and the propagation of the Olympic Movement and formulates the rules, terms and conditions for the commemoration of the Olympic Games.

Though the IOC uses French and English as its official language, however, at the International Olympic Committee Sessions, synchronized translation is also provided into German, Spanish, Russian and Arabic.

"Olympism is a philosophy of life, exalting and combining in a balanced whole the qualities of body, will and mind. Blending sport with culture and education, Olympism seeks to create a way of life based on the joy found in effort, the educational value of good example and respect for universal fundamental ethical principles."

(Olympic Charter, Fundamental Principles, paragraph 2)

(Seehttp://www.olympic.org/uk/index_uk.asp)

The Olympic Movement is a sum total of the International Olympic Committee, Organising Committees of the Olympic Games, the National Olympic Committees, the International Federations, national associations, clubs an the participating athletes.

Jacques Rogge is the present and the 8th International Olympic Committee President. He was elected on 16 July 2001 at the 112th IOC Session in Moscow. He was formerly the President of the Belgian National Olympic Committee from 1989 to 1992. He has also served as the President of the European Olympic Committees in 1989, IOC member in 1991 and Executive Board member in 1998.

The IOC Sport and Law Commission was created in 1996 with the aim to provide a platform for discussion on contemporary legal issues which affect the different organizations which constitute the Olympic Movement.

The IOC Juridical Commission was created in 1974. Its objectives can be grouped as in below:-

  1. To provide legal opinions to the IOC President.
  2. To provide opinions concerning draft amendments to the Olympic Charter.
  3. To formulate actions or defenses relating to the IOC.
  4. To perform any other task of legal nature entrusted upon the Commission by the IOC President.
(Morehttp://www.olympic.org/uk/organisation/commissions/index_uk.asp)