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Cyber Laws in IT & ITES

With the phenomenal and enormous growth of Internet specialized branch of Law called Cyber Law.

Immigration & Emmigration

When a person enters a new country for the purpose of establishing permanent residence and ultimately gaining citizenship , it is called

Immigration.But the residence of immigrants is subject to the conditions set by the Immigration Law.

Broadcasting and Minority Rights

Though one of the avowed objectives of the government is to provide equal access to broadcasting for minorities, yet the achievement in this regard has been far from satisfactory.

The minorities ran only one per cent of the radio and television stations in the USA in 1978.

In this background in order to broad base media ownership, the Federal Communications Commission made rules in 1978 for preference to minorities in the matter of allotment of new radio and television station licenses and for taking over failed stations. (47 U.S.C.A. 309). However, attempts to stall reforms in this direction continued.

Eventually in 1990 the Supreme Court by a majority verdict of 5-4 upheld the constitutional validity of such race based licensing in the broadcasting market to serve important governmental objectives. It is relevant that at that point of time in 1990 minorities in the USA held less than five per cent of the total radio and television licenses.

Moreover, radio and television stations are obliged to provide equal opportunities to employment for minorities. The National Association for Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) monitors compliance in this regard by scrutinizing all applications for employment with broadcasting stations. Any aggrieved party including the said NAACP can file a petition to deny renewal of broadcasting license in case any station has flouted the equal opportunity norm for employment of minorities. The authorities refuse renewal to a non-compliant holder of broadcasting license.