The Contempt of Courts Act, 1971 has been enacted to define and limit the powers of certain courts in punishing contempt of courts and to regulate their procedure in relation thereto. Punishment for contempt affects two important fundamental rights of the citizens, namely, the right to personal liberty and the right to freedom of expression. According to the provisions of this Act, contempt of court means civil contempt or criminal contempt. Civil contempt means willful disobedience to any judgment, decree, direction, order, writ or other process of a court or willful breach of an undertaking given to a court. Criminal contempt means the publication, whether by words, spoken or written, or by signs, or by visible representation, or otherwise, of any matter or the doing of any other act which lowers the authority of any court. The Act provides that any act done or writing published which is calculated to bring a court or a judge into contempt, or to lower his authority, or to interfere with the due course of justice or the lawful process of the court, is a contempt of court.