Immigration, Emigration and Migration
When a person enters a new country for the purpose of establishing permanent residence and ultimately gaining citizenship, it is called Immigration. But the residence of immigrants is subject to the conditions set by the Immigration LAW. When a person leaves his own native country in order to establish himself in another country, it is called Emigration. Though the term Emigration is equivalent to Immigration but it is from the point of view of the native country. Immigration and Emigration are totally different from Involuntary Migration. The term Migration refers to human movement before the establishment of State boundaries. Immigration LAW constitutes very complicated set of rules, regulations and exceptions. Every nation has specific laws to govern Immigration within it.
Reasona For Immigration And Emigration
More often, people migrate due to economic reasons. Sometimes political, religious and personal factors are also responsible. The reasons of attractive incentives for migration are known as Pull factors and the compelling circumstances forcing Migration are known as Push factors which are mainly the reasons for Emigration from the country of origin. The push factors may be War, poverty, natural disasters etc. And pull factors may be political stability, higher incomes, family reasons etc.
Immigration Law is the law which exclusively governs Immigration in a nation. For instance, who the Government can allow in, and for how long, who the Government can deport. So far as foreign citizens are concerned, Immigration Law is related to Nationality Law of a nation governing the matters of citizenship. International Law regulates Immigration Law concerning the citizens of a country. In this regard the United Nations International Covenant On Civil and Political Rights is relevant. The International Organization for Migration is the main intergovernmental organization in the field of Migration. It was initially formed in 1951 as the Intergovernmental Committee for European Migration(ICEM) to help the people displaced during the Second World War. This Organization is committed to the promotion of humane and orderly migration for the benefit of all.