Aliens enjoy a few rights of the citizens. They are entitled to protection under the Constitution and the Bill of Rights. However, unlike citizens they cannot vote or hold any federal elected office.
Under various checks and balances, lawful resident aliens enjoy in limited but varying degrees access to education, federally funded schemes and courts and ownership of land and real estate.
Similarly tax liability of the immigrant depends on his residential status. While a resident alien pays tax like a citizen, a non resident immigrant enjoys certain exemptions.
Further, aliens can move out of the USA only with an exit permit to ensure that they have no taxes and duties in arrears.
In addition to the aforesaid general rules, some categories of visas impose additional obligations and fetters on the immigrants. They are not allowed to take up employment in the US. Unlike citizens, immigrants are liable to criminal prosecutions and penalties even for minor misconducts. For aliens the common punishment is disproportionately high and shocking in the form of deportation. Aliens are also obliged to inform the INS of any change of address.
Sometimes nonimmigrant visas permit the holder to work in the USA as a matter of relief.