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Cyber Laws in IT & ITES

With the phenomenal and enormous growth of Internet specialized branch of Law called Cyber Law.

Immigration & Emmigration

When a person enters a new country for the purpose of establishing permanent residence and ultimately gaining citizenship , it is called

Immigration.But the residence of immigrants is subject to the conditions set by the Immigration Law.


International Trade/ Foreign Trade

International trade or foreign trade is the transaction of goods and services across different nations of the world. The term International trade cannot be literally applied to any transaction during the period before the growth of nation state. Then, International trade only meant, trade or movement of goods over long distances which represent international trade in the modern world. International trade constitutes a substantial share of GDP in most nations. The political, social and economic importance of international trade is growing rapidly. The rise of international trade has been led by globalization, advanced transportation, industrialization, multinational corporations and outsourcing. International trade is the foundation of globalization.

International Trade law is the combination of national law and public international law. Certain multilateral treaties are significant sources of International Trade law. For instance, United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (1980). The United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL) has been recognized as the core legal body of the United Nations system in the field of international trade law. The United Nations Commission on International Trade Law was established by the United Nations General Assembly in 1966. It aims to further harmonization and modernization of the law of international trade by promoting the use and adoption of legislative and non-legislative measures in the key areas of commercial law which includes international contract practices, dispute resolution, transport, insolvency, electronic commerce, international payments, secured transactions, procurement and sale of goods. UNCITRAL has several model laws such as Draft Model Law on Electronic Commerce, Model Law on International Commercial Arbitration, Model Law on Procurement of Goods, Construction and Services, Model Law on International Credit Transfers and Arbitration Rules of the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law.

The World Trade Organization, established in 1995 has replaced its predecessor, General Agreement on Trade and Tariffs, i.e., GATT, a multilateral treaty regime governing international trade for nearly 50 years since 1948. WTO aims to supervise and liberalize global international trade by reducing tariff and non tariff barriers impeding the free and smooth flow of trade. WTO oversees the implementation of international trade agreements, resolves and settles international trade disputes, reviews national trade policies of different countries to ensure that these are WTO compliant and provides technical assistance to the underdeveloped countries to enable them to adjust to the WTO rules.