The operation of trade unions and industrial actions is regulated by the Trade Union and Labour Relations (Consolidation) Act 1992. This Act also governs the relations between employers and unions and is fully applicable in England and Wales and in Scotland and partially in Northern Ireland. The Act provides for banning agreements or terms in employment contracts which require, prohibit, or discriminate on the basis of union membership. The trade unions are required to operate democratically in senior appointments and finance. The Act makes provisions for protection of workers participating in industrial action, including picketers but such an industrial action is not protected if it does not have the approval through secret ballot by over half of a union's members at a workplace. The Act bans secondary strikes and controls collective bargaining agreements. Disputes under the Act are addressed by the Employment Tribunal. The Act also creates criminal offences relating to industrial actions which are likely to endanger human life or cause serious bodily injury and intimidation and are dealt with by the criminal courts.