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Cyber Laws in IT & ITES

With the phenomenal and enormous growth of Internet specialized branch of Law called Cyber Law.

Immigration & Emmigration

When a person enters a new country for the purpose of establishing permanent residence and ultimately gaining citizenship , it is called

Immigration.But the residence of immigrants is subject to the conditions set by the Immigration Law.


Women Labour

Women Labour

Women form an indispensable part of the Indian workforce. The quality of women’s employment is very important and depends upon several factors. The most important factor is equal access to education and other opportunities for skill development. Women are forced to work for meager wages and without social security. However, the working conditions of women are improving. Women face a lot of sexual harassment in the course of employment. Due to their inability to work for long hours they are not employed in sensitive or crucial positions. Women in gold mines handle mercury and cyanide with their bare hands. Woman has to work beyond working hours, even in advanced stages of pregnancy, and there is no leave facility. In some quarries in Orissa women have to work at night and are sexually abused. HIV AIDS, other sexually, transmitted diseases, respiratory problems, silicosis, tuberculosis, leukemia, arthritis and reproductive problems are more prevalent among women working in mines. Although most women in India work and contribute to the economy in one form or another, much of their work is not documented or accounted for in official statistics. Although the cultural restrictions faced by women are changing, they are still not as free as men to participate in the formal economy. In the past, cultural restrictions were the primary impediments to female employment but now, the shortage of jobs throughout the country contributes to low female employment as well. In principle, women have been prohibited to work at night under The Factories Act, 1948. In March 2005 an amendment in the Factories Act came into force to allow women employees in textiles and IT to work late-night shifts with employers providing adequate safeguards at workplace and while commuting.

Therefore allowing night shifts for women the problem of gender-inequality in labour participation cannot be solved. Unless the night work regulations address the lack of infrastructure for family care available in the nights, special health provisions and arrangement on safe commuting to/from the workplace one cannot be sure that allowing night shifts for women does justice for gender equality.

Though the number of female workers has grown faster in recent years than that of their male counterparts, women account for a small proportion of the formal Indian labour force. The 1991 census shows that the number of male main workers increased 23 percent since the 1981 census while the number of female main workers increased 40 percent. However, women still accounted for only 23 percent (64.3 million) of the total.

The reported labor force participation of women is very low. Fewer than one-quarter (22 percent) of women of all ages were engaged in work either as a main or a marginal worker in 1991, compared with just over half of men. Rural women were more likely to be counted in the census as working than urban women, 27 percent versus 9 percent, respectively.

Employment of women in the organized sector (both public and private) at end-March, 2003 at 4.97 million constituted 18.4 per cent of the total organised sector employment compared to 18.1 per cent in 2002. As regards sectoral distribution, community, social and personnel services sectors employed 56.6 percent of women workers followed by manufacturing (20.3 per cent), agriculture and allied occupations (9.4 per cent) and finance, insurance, real estate and business (5.5 per cent). States with higher female literacy rates have higher proportion of women in organized sector employment. Several initiatives have been taken to upgrade skills of women through training. There are about 800 Institutes (218 Women Industrial Training Institutes and 582 Women Wings in General Industrial Training Institutes) providing 46,658 training seats for vocational training facilities for women.