The modern Criminal justice System in India has been derived from the British model. Prior to the inception of the Criminal Law under the British legal system, the Hindu Criminal Law and Mohammedan Criminal Law governed Indians in general. The first codified Criminal law in India was the Indian Penal Code, which came into force in 1862. The Indian Penal Code is based on British criminal law. The Indian Penal Code has been made applicable to resident foreigners and citizens alike and it also recognizes offenses committed abroad by Indian nationals. The Code defines basic crimes and punishments. The Code has been amended several times to fulfill the contemporary requirements and to remove the inadequacies. The Code is still prevailing in India. The subject of criminal jurisdiction has been placed in the Concurrent List of the Constitution of India and thus, both the Central and State Governments have been empowered to make laws on this subject. At present, the law on crime prevention and punishment is embodied in two primary statutes, i.e., the Indian Penal Code, 1860 and the Code of Criminal Procedure of 1973. The states cannot alter or amend these laws as they take precedence over any state legislation. There are several laws enacted separately for establishing criminal liability for various acts, such as, terrorism, smuggling, illegal use of arms and ammunition, corruption, domestic violence, child labour, economic offences, etc.