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Cyber Laws in IT & ITES

With the phenomenal and enormous growth of Internet specialized branch of Law called Cyber Law.

Immigration & Emmigration

When a person enters a new country for the purpose of establishing permanent residence and ultimately gaining citizenship , it is called

Immigration.But the residence of immigrants is subject to the conditions set by the Immigration Law.

US Securities Law

US Securities law includes different financial instruments such as, transferable stocks, shares, bonds, investment contracts, certificates of deposit for a security, voting trust certificates, fractional undivided interest in gas, oil and mineral rights, certificates of interest or participation in profit sharing arrangements, voting trust certificates or collateral trust certificates, notes etc.

The main objective of security law is to ensure transparency in the market to enable the investor take informed decision for his transactions based on the disclosure norms set by the law. Security law is in place also to protect the investor.

Securities command value by virtue of the claim of the holder on the income or assets of the issuer or due to the voting rights enjoyed by him. The value of the securities depends on the assets and the income earning capacity of the issuer.

The security market has two segments, the primary and secondary markets. In the primary market the business raises capital by issue or creation of securities at the first instance. Thereafter, in the secondary market these issued securities are bought and sold.

Stock exchange is the forum where the securities are dealt with. Any stock exchange only permits securities listed with it to be traded within its institutional set up. The Securities and Exchange Commission, which administers the Federal security laws, is the authority for approving the rules of any stock exchange. The Securities and Exchange Commission is the watchdog responsible for protection of the investors, maintaining efficient markets and promoting capital formation

Both Federal and state laws regulate securities. While the Federal laws focus on disclosure requirements for transparency in the securities market, the state laws mainly deal with the registration of security offerings, registration of brokers and dealers and ant-fraud measures.
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‘Blue Sky Laws’ denotes the body of state rules and regulations of different US states on securities, which are in addition to the federal securities law.

A majority of the states, except New York and California have taken the Uniform Securities Act at least in part.